That Blue Square Thing - Geography Revision

Unit 1 Markscheme - Population Change

WARNING! These pages are now very old. They were last updated in 2008 and the content applies to an old version of any geography syllabus currently active in the UK.
I've kept them here because there might be something useful for someone and the general marking principles aren't all that different. But be aware that it's old and out of date (the stuff on the Google Earth page in particular may not work at all)

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Use this markscheme to check your own answers. If you're unsure then ask a teacher to give you a hand. With practice you should be able to mark your own work.

You might find it useful to look at the Standard GCSE Markscheme.

This explains a little more about level marked questions and gives an example. As examiners we're always interested to see useful case studies used in longer answers - this will often gain marks because it helps to explain the points you're making.

a) Which country has the lowest life expectancy?

Niger

b) Complete the Natural Increase boxes for Egypt and the United Kingdom.

Egypt is +20; UK is +2. The Natural Increase is Birth Rate - Death Rate

c) Italy has a Natural Increase of -1. What does this mean is happening to the population of Italy?

That the population is falling

d) Suggest three problems that population growth may cause for an LEDC such as India.

Three points needed (this is a Foundation tier question so it's one mark per point): lack of resources (such as?); overcrowding; lack of jobs; growth of urban areas; various kinds of pollution (water, air - but develop the 'why' for the mark here); you could develop a point about poverty as well.

e) Choose two of the policies shown. For each policy you have chosen, suggest how it may help to slow the population growth rate.

You need to talk about any 2 of the listed points. There are 2 marks available for each point:

  • Education: more chance of a good job therefore less likely to stay at home and therefore have more 'value' as a worker;
  • Contraception: this allows births to be controlled easily;
  • Primary Health Care: reduces infant moertality so people have more conifdence that their chidren will live. It's also a way of getting family planning advice and contraception to people;
  • Equal Rights: women have more chance of education and jobs (see point 1) and are more likely to be in control of their own bodies.

f) In many MEDCs a large percentage of the population is over 60 years of age. Describe the problems this may cause.

This is level marked, with 1-2 marks for Level 1 and 3 for Level 2.

Level 1: simple points, perhaps listed with little development (e.g. need for sheltered housing, heavy users of health care, lack of workers paying tax, expensive pensions etc...)

Level 2: development of at least one point (you could get all 3 marks for one point if it's done well). For example: "Old people need more health care resources because they suffer from problems such as arthritis. This is expensive and as they get older they require more and more expensive care."

g) Suggest what governments and NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) in MEDCs can do to solve these problems.

Level marked here again - this time with 3 levels:

Level 1: simple points - listed and probably dealing with only one of government or NGOs. Points such as encourage migration of young people to the country, encourage birth rate, provide advice and services for older people;

Level 2: some development - e.g. "encourage birth rate by providing cheap child care so thatp women know they will be able to go back to work after having children. By making it cheap this provides a financial incentive to have children as well."

Level 3: well developed points. For L3 both government and NGos must be dealt with - e.g. "NGOs like Age Concern provide social events and advice for older people. This makes sure that they can access services and don't become isolated."

This is quite a hard question because it includes the NGO part. The role of NGOs crops up in almost every section of the syllabus and it's important that you think about how people other than governments can help deal with problems. NGOs can be charities (like Oxfam or Age Concern) or pressure groups (like Friends of the Earth or the CPRE). Age Concern is a good charity to use for MEDC ageing population questions.

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