That Blue Square Thing

Markscheme - LIC Cities

WARNING! These pages are now very old. Although I’ve updated the a little, the content really applies to an old version of any geography syllabus currently active in the UK.
I've kept them here because there might be something useful for someone and the general marking principles aren't all that different. But be aware that it's old and a bit out of date

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Use this markscheme to check your own answers. If you're unsure then ask a teacher to give you a hand. With practice you should be able to mark your own work.

You might find it useful to look at the Standard GCSE Markscheme.

This explains a little more about level marked questions and gives an example. As examiners we're always interested to see useful case studies used in longer answers - this will often gain marks because it helps to explain the points you're making.

a) Describe the housing in the area shown in the photograph

Simple points are fine for the first two marks. For the third mark expect something a little more complex.

b) Give two problems, other than poor housing, caused by the rapid growth of LIC cities.

Points such as: urban sprawl; loss of countryside/habitat; traffic congestion; crime; air/water pollution; waste disposal; overcrowding etc... Simple points are fine - the question says "give".

c) Describe one or more schemes that could be used to reduce problems caused by the rapid growth of LIC cities.

This will be level marked. You should probably focus on housing schemes (such as self-help schemes), but could talk about traffic management (new motorways in tunnels/on stilts in Rio), crime (community policing in Rio) or overcrowding (new towns like Barra in Rio).

Level 1: Simple points - e.g. build new houses for people

Level 2: Developed points - e.g. improve quality of life in the countryside by providing better paid jobs so that people don't want to move to cities.

Level 3: Full development - at L3 answers should show that they are related to a real place. For example, "In Rocinha, a shanty town in Rio, housing is being improved by self-help schemes. These involve the local authority providing free building materials and training. This means that people can improve the quality of their housing by..."

d) Explain why people in LICs are moving from rural areas to urban areas.

Nine mark questions are unusual, but you could find 2 or 3 of them on a higher tier paper (foundation tier papers don't usually go beyond 6 marks on any question). The key is to make sure that you get into at least Level 2 quickly by developing points, using technical language and trying to use examples.

Level 1: Simple points only, perhaps a list of reasons why people move. There may be a basic understanding of both push and pull factors.

Level 2: Developed points, clearly explaining why people move - e.g. "Better jobs in cities will mean people get higher pay and can afford more luxuries to improve their quality of life. This is a pull factor".

Level 3: Well developed points with a clear reference to real world examples and a balance between push and pull factors - e.g. "In the Caatinga region of Brazil people often suffer from drought. This means that they are not able to grow enough food and so suffer from food shortages. Because they often rely on farming to make money this also means they will have less money coming in leading to poverty. This forces people to leave the area and move to cities - it is a push factor."